Imagine you’re trying to learn about cats using a computer. You do a keyword search, only… nothing comes up. Perhaps you’re not using the right keywords? Are you sure the information is even on this computer? Finally, someone gives you a floppy disk, but it turns out your computer can’t read it, so you go to a different computer. Now you have a new problem: you have no idea how to use the software. You give up on all this computer stuff and ask someone to teach you about cats over a cup of coffee.
Welcome to sharing information in 1989. Thankfully it’s not that hard these days, thanks to Tim Berners-Lee and the invention of the World Wide Web, an application that is crucial to viewing content shared over the Internet.
Let’s take a look at just how much the WWW changed the internet that we use today.
Invention of the World Wide Web
Back in 1989, Tim was working at the European research organization CERN and noticed how hard it was to share information. Information was also lost easily when people left the organisation. So, Tim proposed a flexible solution using a system called hypertext, which would be available on any computer, no matter where you were stationed in CERN.
At first, nobody else really “got it” – they said it sounded “vague but exciting” – and it never became an official CERN project. However, Tim was given some time to work on it in September 1990. By the end of that year, Tim had already built:
Tim called the project the “WorldWideWeb” and invited people outside of CERN to join as well. As participation grew, Tim realised it would need to be free in order to reach its full potential:
“Had the technology been proprietary, and in my total control, it would probably not have taken off. You can’t propose that something be a universal space and at the same time keep control of it.”
On 30 April 1993, CERN agreed that the WorldWideWeb should be available royalty-free, forever, and released the underlying code.
Early Adoption of the WorldWideWeb
Interest in the WorldWideWeb took off almost immediately, with an explosion of new web pages and tools to browse the web. The Mosaic web browser was released, making the web easier to use by displaying images in-line (instead of in a new window). The world’s first webcam appeared – The Trojan Room Coffee Pot – which became a popular feature of the early Web. We even have our own!
As the web exploded in popularity, early search engines like Infoseek, AltaVista, and Yahoo! were created to make it easier to find information. These were simple directories – Google would later come along and blitz the competition with search algorithms.
By 1994, commercialisation on the internet had already begun, with banner ads starting to appear. Amazon.com launched the same year, originally selling just books. Websites were also made to promote products – the amazing Space Jam website IS STILL AROUND!
As well as commercial sites, online communities appeared from groups of personal web pages hosted on GeoCities and Tripod. As the “neighbourhoods” on GeoCities grew, the “homesteaders” built tools to connect their sites and to talk to one another. Use of chat rooms, web rings, guest books, internet forums, and online journals increased as a way to connect with each other.
The great dot-com burst of 1999
In the late nineties, businesses started jumping on the web in a big way. A lot of wacky companies started appearing like pets.com, and beenz.com, which attempt to establish an online currency comprised of loyalty points that could be spent with participating merchants (think FlyBuys).
Unfortunately, a “get large or get lost” mentality that prioritised growth over profit lead many of these companies to go belly-up after burning through their venture capital.
Meanwhile, the internet was evolving socially. GeoCities communities gave way to bigger Internet forums, and early journal tools like LiveJournal. Some of the biggest forums are still around now. Something Awful (a NSFW comedy community) and Whirlpool (an Australian broadband community) were founded only one month apart in 1998/1999. As forums became bigger, they influenced internet culture, with memes like All Your Base spreading rapidly.
As the building blocks of the Web became more sophisticated, it became possible to build software and advanced interactive tools. The Web was no longer just a way to transport text and graphics – it was a platform with software applications built into it.
Commercial websites immediately took advantage of these new capabilities, including eBay and Amazon’s online department store. There was a big focus on making online purchases easy and improving payment security.
New interactive tools also led to early social networking. Social networking sites started building on older community technologies like forums, internet journals (now called blogs) and chat rooms, mixing and matching features to make it easy for anyone to set up their own space on the Web. Friendster was the first major social network, then MySpace, later followed by Facebook and Twitter.
Interactivity also made it easier for people to add their own content to the web, and user-edited content quickly became popular. This wasn’t limited to creative and expressive spaces such as YouTube, WordPress and Flickr. Wikipedia launched in 2001 and would later become the world’s largest online encyclopedia.
This trend towards information and social networking combined with people’s enthusiasm for creating their own content paved the way for websites which offered combinations of features. Two examples which are still going strong today are Reddit, which is both a forum and a news aggregator, and Tumblr, which combines blogging, photo and video sharing.
The Web Goes Mobile (Web 3.0)
As time went on, web access became increasingly flexible. 2007 marked the release of the original iPhone, which set off a trend of touchscreen smartphones in the market. While the web was technically accessible on older mobile phones, smartphones made it much easier and user-friendly.
By the beginning of 2014, mobile use had exceeded the use of desktop computers. Today it’s unthinkable for any serious website not to have a mobile-friendly version.
Where to from here?
Today, the WorldWideWeb is an integral part of many people’s daily lives, and the number of users is only increasing. However, even though we interact with it every day, the “real world” and “the web” are still almost two separate worlds.
Perhaps this will change as interest in virtual and augmented reality grows. Games like Pokémon GO and Ingress overlay WorldWideWeb information on top of real-world locations… with some inappropriate results. WebVR, another emerging technology, promises to bring virtual reality to your web browser, creating new shared spaces.
As these services become more common, it’ll be important to add information to, or place limits on, the real-world locations they include. Mixed Reality Services are one proposed solution – a way to match real-world locations with web addresses. In any case, what we have today sure beats floppy disks!